African Americans have fought in military conflicts since colonial days. However, the Buffalo Soldiers, comprised of former slaves, freemen and Black Civil War soldiers, were the first to serve during peacetime.
Once the Westward movement had begun, prominent among those blazing treacherous trails of the Wild West were the Buffalo Soldiers of the U.S. Army. These African Americans were charged with and responsible for escorting settlers, cattle herds, and railroad crews. The 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments also conducted campaigns against American Indian tribes on a western frontier that extended from Montana in the Northwest to Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona in the Southwest.
Throughout the era of the Indian Wars, approximately twenty percent of the U.S. Cavalry troopers were Black, and they fought over 177 engagements. The combat prowess, bravery, tenaciousness, and looks on the battlefield, inspired the Indians to call them Buffalo Soldiers. The name symbolized the Native American’s respect for the Buffalo Soldiers’ bravery and valor. Buffalo Soldiers, down through the years, have worn the name with pride.
Buffalo Soldiers participated in many other military campaigns: The Spanish American War, The Philippine Insurrection, The Mexican Expedition, World War I, World War II, and the Korean Police Action.
Much have changed since the days of the Buffalo Soldiers, including the integration of all-military servicemen and women. However, the story of the Buffalo Soldiers remains one of unsurpassed courage and patriotism, and will be forever a significant part of the history of America.
African Americans have fought with distinction in all of this country’s military engagements. However, some of their most notable contributions and sacrifices came during the Civil War. During that conflict, more than 180,000 African Americans wore the Union Army blue. Another 30,000 served in the Navy, and 200,000 served as workers on labor, engineering, hospital and other military support projects. More than 33,000 of these gallant soldiers gave their lives for the sake of freedom and their country.
Shortly after the Civil War, Congress authorized the formation of the 9th and 10th Cavalry and the 38th, 39th, 40th, and 41st Infantry Regiments: Six all Black peacetime units. Later the four infantry regiments were merged into the 24th and 25th Infantries.
In countless skirmishes and firefights, the troopers won the respect of the Plains warriors who named “Buffalo Soldiers.” African Americans accepted the badge of honor and wore it proudly.
At least 18 Medals of Honor were presented to Buffalo Soldiers during the Western Campaigns. Similarly, 23 African Americans received the nation’s highest military award during the Civil War.
There are many sources on The 9th, 10th Cavalry and the 24th and 25th Infantry.
Charles Young was the third and last black graduate of West Point in the nineteenth century. Born in Helena, Kentucky, he moved North right after the Civil War with his parents. He proved to be a very capable student and began employment as a teacher in Ohio, upon completing high school. Young initially considered applying for admission to a Jesuit college. However, when an opportunity arose for him to take the competitive examination for West Point, he did and performed well on this exam. In 1884 he joined the cadet corps at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York.
John Morton-Finney served with the 24th Infantry during World War I. He was a civil rights activist, lawyer, and educator who earned eleven academic degrees, including five law degrees. Morton-Finney was admitted as a member of the Bar of the Indiana Supreme Court in 1935, as a member of the Bar of the U.S. District Court in 1941. When Morton-Finney retired from practicing law on June 25, 1996, at the age of 107, was believed to have been the oldest practicing attorney in the United States. At the time of his death in 1998 he was Indiana's oldest veteran. Morton-Finney was honored with numerous honorary awards and certificates, including one from the Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court in 1989.
Cathay Williams (September 1844 - 1892) was an American soldier who enlisted in United States Army under the pseudonym William Cathay. She is the first African-American woman to enlist, and the only documented to serve in the United States Army posing as a man.
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